Removal of Cyst

A cyst is a pathological epithelial lined cavity that is filled with fluid or soft material.

Enucleation means complete removal of mass without removing/cutting it. In dentistry, it is more commonly performed in enucleation of dental jaw cyst/tumor/lesion.

Dental jaw cysts are enucleated basically for following reasons:

  • Eradication of a pathology- to completely remove the cyst and prevent it from recurring.
  • To prevent loss of bone structure- a cyst expands and causes loss of bone structure. This can weaken and lead to fracture hence they need to be removed.

Type of anaesthesia depends on the location, size and extent of the lesion/tumour. Usually any lesion within 3-5cm can be done under local anaesthesia. Anything bigger than 5 cm or which increases the duration of surgical time, general anaesthesia is preferred for patient comfort and operator ease too.

Once the cyst is removed, it leaves behind a bony cavity/defect. Depending on the size of cavity (bone defect), additional procedures are done to repair the defect.

For very small and medium lesions, the blood clot that forms in the area is sufficient enough for new bone to form in future. If the lesions are big and when it compromises the function of the jaw, other materials like natural or artificial bone substitutes are used to fill the cavity.

Most commonly used materials that are alloplasic (artificially synthetised) and are sterile materials. Their antigenic property are removed so that there are no reactions with our body. Commonly used are calcium phophosilicates/synthetic bone grafts.

These grafts placed in the defects speed the healing process by attracting parent bone cells to form more bone and act likes a scaffold. They help in bone formation. They rarely cause any allergic reactions and are biocompatible.

No! They stay at the surgery site and they are resorbed over long periods by our own body slowly when the bone starts to form. Rarely, the body may not accept the graft material causing tissue irritation and inflammation. In such cases, the doctor may plan a secondary procedure to address the issue.

Last updated on 11 December, 2018.

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